Ten types of medications that can make you feel depressed

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Ten types of medications that can make you feel depressed

Messaggioda Baraddur » 10/08/2015, 18:59



"by: Dr. Armon B. Neel Jr., from: AARP, February 27, 2012

Researchers have long known that many drugs can make us feel down or even depressed and that, as we age, our changing body chemistries put us at a greater risk for this side effect. But few doctors think to review the medications list when their patients have the telltale symptoms of depression: lack of energy, listlessness, feeling rundown, excessive fatigue, changes in appetite and sleeping patterns, sadness, despair. As a result, they often layer on top of the drugs causing those symptoms a new drug, such as an antidepressant, for treating them, which may in turn trigger additional side effects.

Are you feeling depressed? One of the drugs you're on could be the cause. Read below for the major classes of drugs that can cause depression. If you suspect that your depression symptoms are linked to a prescription drug you're taking, talk to your doctor or health care provider right away. It's important that you do not discontinue them on your own.

1. Beta-blockers

Why they're prescribed: Beta-blockers are typically prescribed to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Examples: atenolol (Tenormin), carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol, propranolol (Inderal), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Timoptic) and some other drugs whose chemical names end with "-olol." These drugs slow the heart rate and lower blood pressure by blocking the effect of the hormone adrenaline. Beta-blockers are also used to treat angina and for other conditions, such as migraines, tremors, irregular heartbeat and, in eye-drop form, certain kinds of glaucoma.

How they can cause depression: While scientists don't know exactly how beta-blockers cause depression, the three most commonly adverse effects reported with their use are fatigue, sexual dysfunction and depression.

Alternatives: For older people, benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers, another form of blood-pressure medication, are often safer and more effective than beta-blockers.

2. Corticosteroids

Why they're prescribed: Corticosteroids are used to treat inflammation of the blood vessels and muscles as well as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Sjögren's syndrome and gout. Examples: cortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisone and triamcinolone.

How they can cause depression: Research suggests that corticosteroids lower serotonin levels in the body, and it is known that lowered serotonin levels can cause depression and other psychiatric disorders. Withdrawal from corticosteroids can also trigger depression.

Alternatives: Acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin, tramadol (Ultram) or, if the situation requires it, a mild opiate like hydrocodone/acetaminophen (Vicodin). As we grow older, most joint pain from arthritis comes not from inflammation (for which corticosteroids may be used) but from immobility of the joint due to joint damage from years of inflammation.

3. Benzodiazepine hypnotics

Why they're prescribed: These drugs, also known as benzodiazepine tranquilizers, are typically prescribed to treat anxiety and insomnia and to relax muscles. Examples: alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (ProSom), flurazepam (Dalmane), lorazepam (Ativan), temazepam (Restoril) and triazolam (Halcion).

How they can cause depression: Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants. If not fully metabolized in the liver, they can build up in the body to toxic levels. The resulting "hangover effect" can manifest itself as depression. Older people are more likely to experience these residual effects because their livers often lack a key enzyme needed to metabolize the drugs.

Alternatives: Give yourself every chance to sleep well naturally: Go to bed and wake up at the same times every day, avoid meals within two hours of bedtime, allow 30 minutes before bedtime for a relaxing pre-sleep ritual, and so forth. Melatonin, a dietary supplement that helps control sleep and wake cycles, may also be worth trying.

4. Parkinson's drugs

Why they're prescribed: One approach to treating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease is to use drugs to adjust the levels of dopamine (a neurotransmitter) in the brain, as the motor symptoms associated with the disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in a region of the midbrain.

For example, levodopa, the most commonly prescribed Parkinson's medication, is converted into dopamine on entering the brain; it's typically combined with carbidopa, which helps prevent it from breaking down before it can reach the brain and take effect, in brand-name products such as Atamet, Sinemet and Stalevo.

Another approach is the use of dopamine agonists such as pramipexole (Mirapex) and ropinorole (Requip), which work by stimulating the dopamine receptors in the brain, thus mimicking the activity of dopamine.

How they can cause depression: Dopamine is one of three basic neurotransmitters that have been associated with depression (the others are serotonin and norepinephrine). Researchers believe that prolonged exposure to higher levels of dopamine may cause depression.

Alternatives: As many as 25 percent of all patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson's don't actually have the disease, so it's important to make sure that you're not among those misdiagnosed. Older people with essential tremors — involuntary trembling or quivering of the hands, limbs or other parts of the body — are often misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's. There's also drug-induced Parkinson's, which can often be reversed if the offending medication is discontinued early enough. (Older patients, for example, frequently develop parkinsonism after being prescribed antipsychotic drugs such as Haldol, Mellaril, Stelazine and Thorazine.) A systemic neurological examination is the best way to test for Parkinson's disease. And if you need to take levodopa, the dose can be reduced with the use of a COMT-inhibitor, a relatively new type of drug that blocks an enzyme in the body from metabolizing the levodopa before it reaches the brain.

5. Hormone-altering drugs

Why they're prescribed: Hormone-altering drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions. Estrogen (Premarin), for example, is typically prescribed for hot flashes and other postmenopausal symptoms .

How they can cause depression: Manipulating hormone levels in the body can cause a variety of problems, particularly as medications interact with the central nervous system. Studies show that changes in hormonal levels are significantly associated with the appearance of symptoms of depression.

Alternatives: Once again, it's important to try to identify the cause of the symptoms. Review the medications you're taking — prescription and over the counter — with your doctor to identify some problems that can be corrected without additional drugs.

6. Stimulants

Why they're prescribed: Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and modafinil (Provigil), are often prescribed to treat excessive daytime sleepiness, whether caused by hypersomnia, narcolepsy or sleep apnea. They're also prescribed for ADHD and fatigue.

How they can cause depression: Stimulant medications increase the level of dopamine in the body. Researchers believe that prolonged exposure to higher levels of dopamine may cause depression.

Alternatives: As with insomnia (see benzodiazepine hypnotics, above), it's important to identify the cause of excessive daytime sleepiness. Other medications you're taking — whether prescription or over the counter — could be responsible. Drugs with sedating effects, for example, are among the most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. (These include alpha- and beta-blockers, anti-diarrheal agents, antihistamines, antipsychotics, antispasmodics, cough suppressants, epilepsy drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, Parkinson's drugs and some antidepressant medications.)

Nondrug causes of excessive daytime sleepiness include sleep deprivation, obstructive sleep apnea (when the throat muscles intermittently relax and block the airway during sleep) and depression. When such underlying conditions are treated appropriately, there's rarely, if ever, any need for the use of stimulants.

7. Anticonvulsants

Why they're prescribed: Anticonvulsant drugs, which have long been used to treat seizures, are increasingly being used to treat other medical conditions, including neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, mood disorders and mania. Examples: carbamazepine (Tegretol), gabapentin (Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), pregabalin (Lyrica) and topiramate (Topamax).

How they can cause depression: Anticonvulsants are believed to work by affecting neurotransmitters, which act as chemical messengers in the brain. They may, for example, limit seizures from spreading by blocking the flow of signals from the central nervous system (CNS) rather than raise the threshold for seizures. All CNS depressants, including anticonvulsants, can cause depression.

Alternatives: For seizures, phenytoin (Dilantin), which raises the seizure threshold; for chronic neuropathic pain, venlafaxine (Effexor), which affects the two neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine, that are thought to play roles in regulating pain.

8. Proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers

Why they're prescribed: Doctors typically prescribe these medications, which suppress the secretion of gastric acid, to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

How they can cause depression: While these drugs are known to cause depression, scientists don't yet understand why they do. When any major body process is blocked, however, the body often rebels in an intense effort to fight back. Consequently, it's altogether likely that changing the pH of the stomach could bring on changes to the central nervous system and the brain.

Alternatives: Know which foods trigger your acid reflux (spicy or fried foods, for example) and avoid them, especially in the hours before bedtime. A non-calcium-carbonate-based antacid, such as Mylanta, may also help. Many of my patients have reported relief from the home remedy of apple cider vinegar and honey (typically one tablespoon each, taken together), though I know of no scientific research that confirms the effectiveness of this approach.

9. Statins and other lipid-lowering drugs

Why they're prescribed: Statins are the class of drugs most commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels, followed by fibrates and other drugs, such as ezetimibe, colesevelam and nicotinic acid.

How they can cause depression: Recent research suggests that lipid-lowering drugs may cause depression by depleting levels of cholesterol in the brain, where it plays an important role in the release of neurotransmitters.

Alternatives: A combination of vitamin B12 (injectable or sublingual), vitamin B6, folic acid and fish oil can lower homocysteine levels in the body. Homocysteine, an amino acid, inflicts damage to the inner arterial lining (endothelium) and other cells of the body, elevating lipids levels. While there are many studies that substantiate this nondrug approach and many that reject it, I've found that it works consistently well in older patients without posing the risk of serious side effects.

10. Anticholinergic drugs used to treat stomach cramps and other GI disorders

Why they're prescribed: Anticholinergic medications slow the action of the intestine, thereby reducing the amount of stomach acid produced. They do this mostly by blocking the effects of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that causes muscles — including those in the intestine — to contract. Dicyclomine (Bentyl), for example, is widely used to treat the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

How they can cause depression: Anticholinergics, as central nervous system depressants, can cause depression, sedation and cognitive impairment in older patients.

Alternatives: Using an H2 blocker such as ranitidine (Zantac) in the lower-dose formulation (75mg) can work well for the occasional attack of heartburn and acid indigestion. A calcium-free antacid (Gelusil or Mylanta, for example) may help."

Source: http://www.aarp.org/health/drugs-supple ... ion.4.html
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Baraddur
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Is Your Medication Causing Depression?

Messaggioda Baraddur » 10/08/2015, 19:08



Source: http://www.healthcommunities.com/depres ... hmwp.shtml

"Is Your Medication Causing Depression?

Chronic Illness also Can Contribute to Depression

Many medications list depression as a side effect—but the evidence linking a particular medication to depression isn't always conclusive. And because depression is common in people who have certain chronic illnesses, it's often difficult for doctors to determine whether a particular medication is to blame or if a patient's depressed state results from the illness itself.
However, a clinical review did find strong evidence that certain medications do indeed cause depression in some patients. The review, published in 2011 in the journal Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, noted that these medications should be used cautiously in people with current or prior depression, or those who are otherwise at high risk for depression:

barbiturates
vigabatrin (Sabril)
topiramate (Topamax)
flunarizine
corticosteroids
mefloquine
efavirenz (Sustiva)
interferon-alpha

Some of these medications may cause depressive symptoms directly by altering levels of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Others may do so indirectly by causing fatigue, diminished appetite, sedation or other side effects, which can lead to depression. For example, many cardiovascular drugs have been shown to cause fatigue and sedation at rates greater than with a placebo.
It's important to let your doctor know if you experience a depressive episode while taking any of the medications on the list. If your doctor determines that your symptoms are related to a medication or combination of medications you're taking, he or she may alter the dosage or switch you to another drug or combination. But don't stop taking a medication without your doctor's approval.
Other Drugs and Depression Risk
The review noted that for medications other than those listed above, studies linking depression to medication use have been limited, based mostly on case reports and case series, and not on well-controlled trials—meaning the evidence isn't as strong. These medications include drugs prescribed to treat illnesses that are themselves associated with an increased risk of depression, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy.

Classes of medications that may contribute to depression or depressive symptoms include:

Alzheimer's disease drugs such as donepezil (Aricept) and rivastigmine (Exelon)
Anti-androgens such as bicalutamide (Casodex) and nilutamide (Nilandron)
Anti-convulsants such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal) and zonisamide (Zonegran)
Benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), estazolam (ProSom) and lorazepam (Ativan)
Beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), propanolol (Inderal) and timolol (Timoptic)
Calcium channel blockers such as diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor and others) and verapamil (Calan)
Hormone replacement therapies such as estrogen (Cenestin, Enjuvia and others), medroxyprogesterone (Provera) and conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone (Prempro)
Parkinson's disease medications such as amantadine and levodopa/carbidopa (Parcopa, Sinemet)
Other medications such as clonidine (Catapres, Duraclon), clopidogrel (Plavix) and raloxifene (Evista)

Even when depression is listed as a rare side effect of a medication, be aware that the risk of the medication triggering depression may increase with age because of changing body chemistry. Medication-related depression is also a greater risk for people with a history of mood disorders and those who are taking multiple medications."
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Baraddur
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Ten types of medications that can make you feel depressed

Messaggioda Baraddur » 11/08/2015, 3:25



"Drugs that Cause Depression
by Public Citizen’s Health Research Group.

Generic name - Brand name
acebutolol SECTRAL
acyclovir ZOVIRAX
alprazolam XANAX
amitriptyline and chlordiazepoxide LIMBITROL
amlodipine NORVASC
amlodipine and benazepril LOTREL
asparaginase ELSPAR
atenolol TENORMIN
atenolol and chlorthalidone TENORETIC
atorvastatin LIPITOR
baclofen LIORESAL
betamethasone DIPROLENE
betamethasone DIPROSONE
betamethasone VALISONE
betaxolol (heart) KERLONE
bisoprolol ZEBETA
bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide ZIAC
bromfenac DURACT
bromocriptine PARLODEL
bupropion (mind) WELLBUTRIN
bupropion (smoking) ZYBAN
buspirone BUSPAR
butabarbital BUTISOL
carbamazepine TEGRETOL
carteolol CARTROL
carteolol OCUPRESS
carvedilol COREG
cerivastatin BAYCOL
chlordiazepoxide LIBRIUM
cimetidine TAGAMET
ciprofloxacin CILOXAN
ciprofloxacin CIPRO
clonazepam KLONOPIN
clonidine CATAPRES
clorazepate TRANXENE
corticotropin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) ACTHAR
corticotropin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) CORTROPHIN-ZINC
cortisone CORTONE
cycloserine SEROMYCIN
deserpidine and methyclothiazide ENDURONYL
dexamethasone DECADRON
dexamethasone HEXADROL
diazepam VALIUM
diclofenac VOLTAREN
diflunisal DOLOBID
diltiazem CARDIZEM CD
diltiazem DILACOR XR
diltiazem TIAZAC
diltiazem and enalapril TECZEM
disopyramide NORPACE
disulfiram ANTABUSE
divalproex/valproate/valproic acid DEPAKENE/DEPAKOTE
enoxacin PENETREX
ethionamide TRECATOR-SC
ethosuximide ZARONTIN
etodolac LODINE
famotidine PEPCID
felodipine PLENDIL
felodipine and enalapril LEXXEL
fenoprofen NALFON
flurazepam DALMANE
flurbiprofen ANSAID
flurbiprofen OCUFEN
fluvastatin LESCOL
grepafloxacin RAXAR
guanfacine TENEX
hydrocortisone CORTEF
ibuprofen ADVIL
ibuprofen MEDIPREN
ibuprofen MOTRIN
ibuprofen NUPRIN
indomethacin INDOCIN
interferon alpha INTRON A
interferon alpha ROFERON-A
isoniazid INH
isotretinoin ACCUTANE
isradipine DYNACIRC
isradipine DYNACIRC CR
ketoprofen ORUDIS
labetalol NORMODYNE
labetalol TRANDATE
levobunolol BETAGAN
levodopa LARODOPA
levodopa and carbidopa SINEMET
levofloxacin LEVAQUIN
lomefloxacin MAXAQUIN
lorazepam ATIVAN
lovastatin MEVACOR
meclofenamate MECLOMEN
mefloquine LARIAM
meperidine DEMEROL
methyldopa ALDOMET
methylprednisolone MEDROL
methyprylon NOLUDAR
metipranolol OPTIPRANOLOL
metoclopramide REGLAN
metoprolol LOPRESSOR
metoprolol TOPROL XL
metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide LOPRESSOR HCT
metrizamide AMIPAQUE
metronidazole FLAGYL
mibefradil POSICOR
morphine MS CONTIN
morphine ROXANOL
nabumetone RELAFEN
nadolol CORGARD
nadolol and bendroflumethiazide CORZIDE
naproxen ALEVE
naproxen ANAPROX
naproxen NAPROSYN
nicardipine CARDENE
nicardipine CARDENE SR
nifedipine ADALAT CC
nifedipine PROCARDIA XL
nisoldipine SULAR
nizatidine AXID
norfloxacin CHIBROXIN
norfloxacin NOROXIN
ofloxacin FLOXIN
ofloxacin OCUFLOX
oxaprozin DAYPRO
oxazepam SERAX
penbutolol LEVATOL
pentazocine TALWIN
pentazocine and naloxone TALWIN-NX
pentobarbital NEMBUTAL
pergolide PERMAX
phenobarbital LUMINAL
phenobarbital SOLFOTON
phenylbutazone BUTAZOLIDIN
phenylpropanolamine DEXATRIM
phenytoin DILANTIN
pindolol VISKEN
piroxicam FELDENE
pravastatin PRAVACHOL
prazepam CENTRAX
prazosin MINIPRESS
prednisolone METRETON
prednisolone PRED FORTE
prednisone DELTASONE
prednisone METICORTEN
primidone MYSOLINE
procainamide PROCANBID
propranolol INDERAL
propranolol INDERAL LA
propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide INDERIDE LA
ranitidine ZANTAC
reserpine SERPASIL
reserpine and chlorothiazide CHLOROSERPINE
reserpine and chlorothiazide DIUPRES
reserpine and chlorthalidone DEMI-REGROTON
reserpine and chlorthalidone REGROTON
reserpine and hydralazine and
hydrochlorothiazide SER-AP-ES
reserpine and hydrochlorothiazide HYDROPRES
reserpine and hydrochlorothiazide HYDROSERPINE
reserpine and hydroflumethiazide SALUTENSIN
secobarbital SECONAL
selegiline/deprenyl ELDEPRYL
simvastatin ZOCOR
sparfloxacin ZAGAM
sulindac CLINORIL
temazepam RESTORIL
terazosin HYTRIN
timolol (eye) TIMOPTIC
timolol (heart) BLOCADREN
timolol and hydrochlorothiazide TIMOLIDE
tolmetin TOLECTIN
tramadol ULTRAM
triamcinolone AZMACORT
triamcinolone KENALOG
triazolam HALCION
verapamil CALAN SR
verapamil COVERA-HS
verapamil ISOPTIN SR
verapamil VERELAN
verapamil and trandolapril TARKA
vinblastine VELBAN "

Source: http://www.alternativementalhealth.com/ ... epression/
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Baraddur
Amico level nineteen
 
Stato:
Messaggi: 1368
Iscritto il: 15/05/2013, 13:58
Località: Apolide dell'esistenza
Citazione: "Mi hanno piantato dentro così tanti coltelli che quando mi regalano un fiore all'inizio non capisco neanche cos'è. Ci vuole tempo." Charles Bukowski

"Le tre furie: paura, colpa e vergogna" Patrick Jane
Genere: Maschile


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